Amenorrhea (uh-men-o-REE-uh) is the absence of menstruation, often defined as missing one or more menstrual periods.
Primary amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstruation in someone who has not had a period by age 15. The most common causes of primary amenorrhea relate to hormone levels, although anatomical problems also can cause amenorrhea.
Secondary amenorrhea refers to the absence of three or more periods in a row by someone who has had periods in the past. Pregnancy is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea, although problems with hormones also can cause secondary amenorrhea.
What is Amenorrhea? ( Definition of primary and secondary amenorrhea )
Amenorrhea is when you don’t get your monthly period. It can be temporary or permanent. Amenorrhea can result from a change in function or a problem with some part of the female reproductive system.
There are times when you’re not supposed to get your period, such as before puberty, during pregnancy, and after menopause. If amenorrhea lasts for more than three months, it should be investigated.
Symptoms of Amenorrhea :
The main symptom is a lack of menstruation.
However, depending on the cause, other symptoms may occur.
milky nipple discharge
additional facial hair
In those with primary amenorrhea, there may be a lack of breast development.
Anyone who experiences these symptoms should seek medical advice.
What Causes amenorrhea?
The main causes of primary amenorrhea include family history, genetics, and lifestyle. Women with the following factors are more at risk:
A family history of amenorrhea or early menopause.
A genetic or chromosomal defect. These can affect your ovary function and menstrual cycle. Turner syndrome is one example.
Severely overweight or underweight.
An eating disorder.
An extreme exercise pattern.
A poor diet.
Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause can cause secondary amenorrhea. Other possible causes include:
Some birth controls, such as pills, injections, or intrauterine devices. These can affect your menstrual cycle during and after use.
Some medicines for depression and blood pressure.
Chemotherapy and radiation treatment.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Fragile X syndrome (caused by the FMR1 gene) or fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI).
Problems with your thyroid or pituitary gland.
Uterine scar tissue.
What is the main cause of amenorrhea?
Common causes of primary amenorrhea include Chromosomal or genetic problems with the ovaries (the female sex organs that hold the eggs). Hormonal issues stemming from problems with the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland. The structural problem with the reproductive organs, such as missing parts of the reproductive system.
What is the treatment for amenorrhea ? ! How do you fix your amenorrhea?
Treatment of primary and secondary amenorrhea is determined by the specific cause. Treatment goals can be to relieve symptoms of hormonal imbalance, establish menstruation, prevent complications, and/or achieve fertility, although not all of these goals can be achieved in every case.
In cases in which genetic or anatomical abnormalities are the cause of amenorrhea (typically primary amenorrhea), surgery may be recommended.
Hypothalamic amenorrhea that is related to weight loss, excessive exercise, physical illness, or emotional stress can typically be corrected by addressing the underlying cause. For example, weight gain and reduction in the intensity of exercise can usually restore menstrual periods in women who have developed amenorrhea due to weight loss or overly intensive exercise who do not have additional causes of amenorrhea. In some cases, nutritional counseling may be of benefit.
In premature ovarian failure, hormone therapy may be recommended both to avoid the unpleasant symptoms of estrogen depletion as well as prevent complications (see below) of low estrogen levels such as osteoporosis. This may consist of oral contraceptive pills for those women who do not desire pregnancy or alternative estrogen and progesterone medications. While postmenopausal hormone therapy has been associated with certain health risks in older women, younger women with premature ovarian failure can benefit from this therapy to prevent bone loss.
Women with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) may benefit from treatments that reduce the level or activity of male hormones, or androgens.
Dopamine agonist medications such as bromocriptine (Parlodel) can reduce elevated prolactin levels, which may be responsible for amenorrhea. Consequently, medication levels may be adjusted by the person’s physician if appropriate.
Assisted reproductive technologies and the administration of gonadotropin medications (drugs that stimulate follicle maturation in the ovaries) can be appropriate for women with some types of amenorrhea who wish to attempt to become pregnant.
While many companies and individuals have marketed herbal therapies as a treatment for amenorrhea, none of these have been conclusively proven to be of benefit. These therapies are not regulated by the U.S. FDA and the quality of herbal preparations is not tested. Herbal remedies have been associated with serious and even fatal side effects in rare cases, and some preparations have been shown to contain high levels of toxins. Before deciding to take a natural or alternative remedy for amenorrhea, it is wise to seek the advice of your healthcare practitioner.