Migraine Symptoms, Causes and Risk factors

 What is a migraine?

A migraine is a common neurological disease that causes a variety of symptoms, most notably a throbbing, pulsing headache on one side of your head. Your migraine will likely get worse with physical activity, lights, sounds, or smells. It may last at least four hours or even days. About 12% of Americans have this genetic disorder. Research shows that it’s the sixth most disabling disease in the world.

Migraine symptoms :

   Migraine symptoms may begin one to two days before the headache itself. This is known as the prodrome stage. Symptoms during this stage can include:

food cravings


fatigue or low energy

frequent yawning



neck stiffness

In migraine with aura, the aura occurs after the prodrome stage. During an aura, you may have problems with your vision, sensation, movement, and speech. Examples of these problems include:

difficulty speaking clearly

feeling a prickling or tingling sensation in your face, arms, or legs

seeing shapes, light flashes, or bright spots

temporarily losing your vision

The next phase is known as the attack phase. This is the most acute or severe of the phases when the actual migraine pain occurs. In some people, this can overlap or occur during an aura. Attack phase symptoms can last anywhere from hours to days. Symptoms of a migraine can vary from person to person. Some symptoms may include:

increased sensitivity to light and sound


dizziness or feeling faint

pain on one side of your head, either on the left side, right side, front, or back, or in your temples

pulsing and throbbing head pain


After the attack phase, a person will often experience the postdrome phase. During this phase, there are usually changes in mood and feelings. These can range from feeling euphoric and extremely happy, to feeling very fatigued and apathetic. A mild, dull headache may persist.

Causes migraine :

    A migraine headache is caused by abnormal brain activity. This activity can be triggered by many things. But the exact chain of events remains unclear. Most medical experts believe the attack begins in the brain and involves nerve pathways and chemicals. The changes affect blood flow in the brain and surrounding tissues.

Researchers believe that migraine has a genetic cause. There are also a number of factors that can trigger a migraine. These factors vary from person to person, and they include



Hormonal changes in women

Bright or flashing lights

Loud noises

Strong smells


Too much or not enough sleep

Sudden changes in weather or environment

Overexertion (too much physical activity)


Caffeine or caffeine withdrawal

Skipped meals

Medication overuse (taking medicine for migraines too often)

Risk factors :

Anyone can develop migraine, but it is more common in people with any of the following:


bipolar disorder


irritable bowel syndrome

an overactive bladder

sleep disorders

obsessive-compulsive disorder


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